Table 2

Results of studies examining scanpath behaviour in individuals with schizophrenia

Variable of interest*
StudyNo. of fixationsMean duration of fixationsNo. of saccadesAvg. saccade amplitudeScanpath lengthRegion of interest
Benson et al.36SC < controlsSC > controlsSC < controlsSC = controlsNRNR
Bestelmeyer et al.37SC < controlsSC > controlsNRSC < controlsNRAtypical
De Wilde et al.60SC = controlsSC = controlsNRNRSC < controlsAtypical for detailed cards
Gaebel et al.83SC = controlsSC = controlsNRNRNRNR
Green et al.39Context-free: SC < controls (NS)
Context-embedded: SC = controls
Context-free: SC = controls
Context-embedded: SC > controls
Context-free: SC < controls
Context-embedded: SC = controls
NRNRAtypical
Green et al.38SC < controlsSC = controlsNRSC = controlsFixation: SC < controls (NS)
Raw: SC = controls
% No. of fixations to features: SC = controls
% Fixation duration to features: SC < controls
Hori et al.40SC < controlsSC > controlsNRSC < controlsSC < controlsAtypical
Kojima et al.49NRNRNRNRNRNR
Kojima et al.46SC < controlsNRNRSC < controlsNRNR
Kojima et al.47SC < controlsNRNRChronic SC < controlsNRNR
Kojima et al.45SC < controlsNRNRSC < controlsNRNR
Kojima et al.48NRNRNRNRNRNR
Kurachi et al.841st 10 s: SC = controls
2nd 10 s: SC < controls
NRNRNR1st 10 s: SC = controls
2nd 10 s: SC < controls
NR
Leonards et al.61NRSC > controlsSC < controlsSC < controlsNRAtypical
Loughland et al.51SC < controlsSC > controlsNRSC < controlsRaw: SC < controls
Fixation: SC < controls
Atypical
Loughland et al.52NRSC > controlsNRSC < controlsRaw: SC < controls
Fixation: SC < controls
Atypical for happy and neutral but not sad faces
Loughland et al.62SC < controlsFace recognition: SC < controls
Affect recognition: SC > controls
NRSC < controlsFixation: SC < controls
Raw: SC < controls
Atypical
Manor et al.53Face: SC < controls (NS)
Rey: SC = controls
SC = controlsNRNRFace: SC < controls
Rey: SC = controls
NR
Matsukawa et al.63NRNRNRNRNRNR
Matsushima et al.54SC < controlsNRNRSC < controlsSC < controlsNR
Matsushima et al.85NRNRNRNRNRNR
Mikami et al.55SC < controlsNRNRNRSC < controlsNR
Minassian et al.56NRSC > controlsNRSC = controlsSC < controlsNR
Moriya et al.64NRNRNRNRNRAtypical
Nishiura et al.57Smiling face: SC < controls
Circles: SC < controls
Crying face: SC = controls
NRNRNRSmiling face: SC < controls
Circles: SC < controls
Crying face: SC = controls
NR
Obayashi et al.42SC < controlsNRNRSC < controlsSC < controlsAtypical
Obayashi et al.41SC < controlsNRNRT1: SC < controlsNRNR
Philips and David86Deluded SC < controlsNRNRNRNRAtypical for deluded SC but not nondeluded SC
Phillips and David50SC < controlsNRNRNRNRAtypical
Phillips and David87NRNRNRNRNRAtypical
Phillips and David88NRNRNRNRNRAtypical
Phillips and David89NRNRNRNRNRAtypical
Philips and David65Deluded SC < controls
Nondeluded SC = controls
Deluded SC > controls
Nondeluded SC = controls
NRNRNRAtypical for deluded SC but not nondeluded SC
Philips and David90SC = controlsSC = controlsNRNRNR(T1) Single faces: atypical in deluded SC but not nondeluded SC
Face pairs: atypical in deluded SC and nondeluded SC (T2) normal
Phillips et al.66NRNRNRNRNRAtypical in SC with persecutory delusions
Quirk and Strauss92NRSC > controls (NS)NRNRSC = controlsAtypical for affective but not neutral images
Ryu et al.59SC < controlsSC > controlsNRSC < controlsSC < controlsAtypical
Schwartz et al.93NRNRNRNRNRNR
Streit et al. 94NRSC < controls (NS)NRSC < controlsNRAtypical
Takahashi et al.44SC < controlsNRNRNRNRAtypical
Tsunoda et al.73SC < controlsSC > controlsNRSC < controlsNRNR
Williams et al.68SC < controlsSC > controlsNRSC < controlsSC < controlsFaces: atypical
Degraded: normal
Williams et al.67SC < controlsSC = controlsNRNRSC < controls (risperidone-treated, but not haloperidol-treated, SC patients)Atypical in haloperidol-treated SC patients, but not risperidone-treated SC patients (happy and neutral but not sad faces)
Xia et al.69SC < controlsNRNRSC = controlsSC < controlsNR
  • Fixation = scanpath length as measured by total distance fixation points; NR = not reported; NS = nonsignificant trend; Raw = true scanpath length; Rey = Rey complex figure; SC = schizophrenia; T1 = first test session; T2 = second test session.

  • * Patterns of attentional assignment to regions of interest. Only results of comparisons with healthy, nonclinical and nonrelative groups are reported. Results do not differ between tasks or stimuli unless otherwise stated.