Table 1

Methods of studies examining scanpath behaviour in individuals with schizophrenia

StudySchizophrenia group, no. and typeComparison groupStimuliTask
Benson et al.36*11 paranoid22 healthy controls
6 cannabis-induced psychosis
Faces, landscapes, fractalsFree-viewing
Bestelmeyer et al.37*2237 healthy controls
19 bipolar disorder
Faces, fractals, landscapes, noiseFree-viewing
De Wilde et al.60*5036 healthy controls
23 siblings
Images from Thematic Apperception TestThematic Apperception Test
Gaebel et al.832020 healthy controlsDrawings depicting proverbsFree-viewing
Green et al.39*2426 healthy controlsFaces (context-free and context-embedded)“Decide what the person is feeling or thinking”
Green et al.38*11 deluded
8 nondeluded
22 healthy controlsFaces“Think about how the person seems to be feeling”
Hori et al. 40*3736 healthy controlsRorschach stimuliEye movements recorded during free response period in Rorschach test
Kojima et al.4910550 healthy controls
30 unipolar depression
28 amphetamine psychosis
50 epilepsy
S-shaped figuresS-shaped figures procedure§
Kojima et al.46*2525 healthy controls
25 unipolar depression
10 obsessive–compulsive disorder
S-shaped figuresS-shaped figures procedure§
Kojima et al.47*8050 healthy controls
25 methamphetamine psychosis
21 temporal lobe epilepsy (L)
12 temporal lobe epilepsy (R)
S-shaped figuresS-shaped figures procedure§
Kojima et al.45*145124 healthy controls
116 depression
S-shaped figuresS-shaped figures procedure§
Kojima et al.48*2923 healthy controlsS-shaped figuresS-shaped figures procedure§
Kurachi et al.841212 healthy controlsPicture completion test of the WAISWAIS picture completion test
Leonards et al.618 paranoid
1 disorganized
9 undifferentiated
28 healthy controlsFaces, fractals, landscapes
Loughland et al.51*6561 healthy controls
52 affective disorder
Faces, degraded faces
  1. Face recognition

  2. Affect recognition

Loughland et al.52*6561 healthy controlsFacesAffect recognition
Loughland et al.62*6361 healthy controls
37 first-degree relative
Faces, degraded faces
  1. Face recognition

  2. Affect recognition

Manor et al.53*2525 healthy controlsNeutral face, Rey Complex Figure
Matsukawa et al.631519 healthy controls
20 systemic lupus erythematosus
S-shaped figuresS-shaped figures procedure§
Matsushima et al.54*2020 healthy controls
18 frontal lobe lesion
S-shaped figureS-shaped figures procedure§
Matsushima et al.85*3010 healthy controls
10 unipolar depression
10 methamphetamine psychosis
10 alcohol psychosis
10 anxiety disorder
10 temporal lobe epilepsy
10 frontal lobe lesion
S-shaped figuresS-shaped figures procedure§
Mikami et al.55*3030 healthy controls
48 methamphetamine psychosis
S-shaped figuresS-shaped figures procedure§
Minassian et al.56*3830 healthy controlsRorschach stimuliViewing for subsequent Rorschach response period
Moriya et al.642420 healthy controlsHuman figures, S-shaped figuresFree-viewing
Nishiura et al.57*28 paranoid
16 nonparanoid
72 healthy controlsFaces with emotion-congruent sound, circlesJudge whether current picture differs from previous
Obayashi et al.42*2720 healthy controlsGeometric figures (from Benton Visual Retention Test)Benton Visual Retention Test
Obayashi et al.41*18 paranoid
7 disorganized
2 undifferentiated
1 catatonic
29 healthy controlsS-shaped figuresS-shaped figures procedure§ 2test sessions 6 months apart
Philips and David867 deluded
7 nondeluded
10 healthy controlsSingle faces, face pairsFace recognition
Phillips and David507 deluded
7 minimally deluded
10 healthy controlsSingle faces, face pairsFace recognition
Phillips and David8789 healthy controlsNeutral faces, chimeric faces
Phillips and David8812 pers. delusions
10 nonpers. delusions
10 healthy controlsScenes depicting neutral, ambiguous or threatening activity
Phillips and David89Neutral face: state whether face is pleasant
Chimeric faces: determine facial expression
Philips and David65*7 deluded
7 nondeluded
10 healthy controlsSingle faces and face pairs (from Recognition Memory Test)Recognition task
Philips and David90*6 deluded
5 minimally deluded
9 healthy controlsSingle faces and face pairs (from Recognition Memory Test)Recognition task
Phillips et al.9119 pers. delusions
8 nonpers. delusions
17 healthy controlsScene showing neutral, ambiguous or threatening activities
Phillips et al.6619 pers. delusions
8 nonpers. delusions
18 healthy controlsScene showing neutral, ambiguous or threatening activities
  1. Free-viewing

  2. Asked to attend to threatening areas

Quirk and Strauss92*2010 addiction recovery patientsEmotional imagesFree-viewing
Rosse et al.581638 cocaine usersFaces with direct and averted gaze
  1. Affect recognition

  2. Gaze direction discrimination

Ryu et al.59*6030 healthy controlsCircles, faces symbols, landscapeVaried by stimulus
Schwartz et al.931610 healthy controlsUpright and inverted facesAffect recognition
Streit et al.941618 healthy controlsFacesAffect recognition
2 test sessions 4 weeks apart
Takahashi et al.433837 parents
47 siblings
S-shaped figuresS-shaped figures procedure§
Takahashi et al.44*2343 healthy controls
23 siblings
S-shaped figuresS-shaped figures procedure§
Tsunoda et al.7439S-shaped figuresS-shaped figures procedure§
Tsunoda et al.73*3232 healthy controlsBenton Visual Retention TestViewing for stimulus reproduction
Williams et al.68*6360 healthy controlsFaces, degraded facesFree-viewing for later recognition
Williams et al.67*2828 healthy controlsFacesViewing for subsequent affect recognition
Xia et al.691441 healthy controls
23 parents
S-shaped figuresS-shaped figures procedure§
  • (L) = left-side spike focus; nonpers. = nonpersecutory; pers. = persecutory; (R) = right-side spike focus; WAIS = Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale.

  • * Study included in effect size calculations.

  • In most of these studies, it is not clear whether participants were aware of affect recognition tasks, reproduction tasks, etc., before viewing or whether they completed a free-viewing task and were then informed of the additional task.

  • First-degree relatives, parents and siblings were all unaffected relatives of patients with schizophrenia.

  • § In these tasks, participants are shown an S-shaped figure (target figure) and asked to state whether the figure differs from a similar figure presented previously. The question “Are there any other differences?” is then repeated until the participant states that no further differences are present. Eye movements are recorded during each viewing period and during questioning.

  • Both schizophrenia and schizotypal disorder.