Table 1

Changes in motor behaviour, anxiety- and depression-related behaviour, and addiction-related behaviour in constitutive VMAT2-HET mice*

Behaviour typeChange observedNE, 5-HT, DANE5-HTDA
Motor behaviourSpontaneous locomotion (horizontal activity) Embedded Image Embedded Image
Rotarod (latency to fall)
AnxietyElevated plus maze (time in open arm)
Novelty suppressed feeding (feeding latency)
DepressionForced swim test (immobility %)
Sucrose preference test (% of preference) Embedded Image
AddictionAcute motor response to cocaine Embedded Image Embedded Image
Acute motor response to amphetamine Embedded Image Embedded Image
Cocaine sensitization Embedded Image Embedded Image
Amphetamine-conditioned place preference Embedded Image
  • ∅ = no change;

    Embedded Image

    = significant decrease;

    Embedded Image

    = significant increase; 5-HT = serotonin; DA = dopamine; HET = heterozygous; NE = norepinephrine; VMAT = vesicular monoaminergic transporter-2.

  • * The 3 monoaminergic systems are affected compared with the conditional VMAT2DBHcre-HET, VMAT2SERTcre-HET and VMAT2DATcre-HET mouse lines (in which only 1 specific monoaminergic system is altered.