Table 2

Clusters showing whole brain VBM differences between participants with ADHD and controls

Cluster*No. of voxelsMNI coordinates (x, y, z)Best z valueSide of the brainArea
Cl 1157−40, −6, 56−3.96LPrecentral gyrus
Cl 2244−26, 16, −24−4.43LOrbitofrontal cortex
Cl 325028, 70, −2−4.17RFrontal pole
Cl 4518−14, 52, 14−4.43LParacingulate cortex, cingulate cortex, frontal pole
Cl 56672, 22, −2−3.79L, RMedial frontal, paracingulate, cingulate and subcallosal cortices
  • ADHD = attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; Cl = cluster; L = left; R = right; VBM = voxel-based morphometry.

  • * Smaller volume in participants with ADHD compared with controls.

  • MNI coordinates are provided in mm for the peak voxel.

  • Reported areas are identified with the Harvard Oxford cortical and subcortical structural atlases.