Controls; mean ± SD^{*} | Patients; mean ± SD^{*} | Group; statistic,^{†}p value | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Characteristic | Menn = 18 | Womenn = 19 | Menn = 29 | Womenn = 27 | Diagnosis | Sex | Diagnosis × sex |

Age, yr^{‡} | 29.5 ± 8.3 | 35.8 ± 14.5 | 32.2 ± 10.3 | 33.0 ± 8.3 | F = 0.00, p = 0.98 | F = 2.61, p = 0.11 | F = 1.59, p =0.21 |

Age at illness onset, yr | — | — | 22.9 ± 6.4 | 25.2 ± 7.0 | — | t = 1.26, p = 0.21 | — |

Education (category)^{‡} | 4.4 ± 0.92 | 5.0 ± 0.78 | 3.2 ± 1.6 | 4.1 ± 1.3 | F = 15.70, p < 0.001 | F = 7.34, p = 0.008 | F = 0.67, p = 0.42 |

Olfaction | |||||||

Smell identification | n = 1731.5 ± 3.6 | n = 1933.4 ± 4.5 | n = 2830.4 ± 4.0 | n = 2632.2 ± 4.4 | F = 1.66, p = 0.20 | F = 4.40, p = 0.039 | F = 0.01, p = 0.93 |

Odour sensitivity^{‡} | n = 174.63 ± 1.5 | n = 164.73 ± 1.0 | n = 234.29 ± 1.4 | n = 235.16 ± 2.2 | F = 0.01, p = 0.91 | F = 1.67, p = 0.20 | F = 1.06, p = 0.31 |

PANSS symptoms | — | — | n = 27 | n = 25 | — | λ = 0.05, p = 0.99 | — |

Positive total | — | — | 12.0 ± 5.3 | 12.2 ± 7.9 | — | F = 0.02, p = 0.88 | — |

Negative total | — | — | 13.7 ± 5.5 | 13.2 ± 5.6 | — | F = 0.10, p = 0.76 | — |

General total | — | — | 25.5 ± 5.9 | 25.6 ± 9.3 | — | F = 0.00, p = 0.97 | — |

HAMD-24 | — | — | 7.6 ± 6.0 | 9.2 ± 7.3 | — | t = 0.92, p = 0.36 | — |

HAMD-24: 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; PANSS = Positive and Negative Symptom Scale; SD = standard deviation.

↵* Unless otherwise indicated.

↵† Test statistic: analysis of variance. Clinical symptoms were examined across sex using a multivariate analysis of variance statistic for the PANSS scales and the

*t*test statistic for the HAMD-24 and the Young Mania Rating scales.↵‡ For age, education and odour sensitivity, the equality of variances test was significant.