Table 2

Brain activation associated with negative emotions in patients with BPD and healthy controls as well as significant differences between both groups for the negative – neutral contrast*

Brain regionMNI spacezkZp value
Healthy controls
L middle occipital−51−76118536.21< 0.001
L middle occipital−27−91105.60
L fusiform−36−58−85.48
R middle occipital30−882221686.19< 0.001
R middle occipital42−7345.79
R middle temporal48−6475.63
L inferior frontal, triangularis−512971384.310.014
L inferior frontal, orbitalis−5138−53.77
L inferior frontal, triangularis−392613.57
R inferior frontal, orbitalis4526−5954.310.048
R inferior frontal, triangularis512944.05
Patients with BPD
L middle temporal45−58468886.16< 0.001
L fusiform−24−82−86.08
R caudate18−7225.95
Increased brain activation related to negative emotions in patients with BPD compared with healthy controls
L precentral−422347074.69< 0.001
R caudate21−7224.48
L superior frontal−1520404.45
L precuneus−21−4611174.680.025
L hippocampus−24−31−23.42
L posterior cingulum−9−43133.41
Negative correlations between brain activation associated with negative emotions and the level of habitual acceptance in patients with BPD
L putamen−24147834.19< 0.048
L putamen−272−23.41
L caudate−917103.24
  • BPD = borderline personality disorder; EAQ = Emotion Acceptance Questionnaire; FWE = family-wise error; L = left hemisphere; MNI = Montreal Neurological Institute; R = right hemisphere.

  • * Displayed are the whole-brain results of a within-group cluster-level analysis with a cluster significance threshold of p <0.05 (FWE-corrected for multiple comparisons) and a minimum cluster size of 20 voxels.

  • EAQ; included as a covariate.