Table 3

Adverse effects in capsulotomy and limbic system surgery

Adverse effectCapsulotomy, %Limbic system surgery, %
 Severe or permanent
  Brain edema or cyst1.61.2
  Intracerebral hemorrhage0.30.0
  Subdural empyema0.01.2
 Mild and transient
  Brain edema or cyst2.60.0
  Asymptomatic lacunar infarct2.00.0
  Skin edema1.30.0
  Deep vein thrombosis1.00.0
  Intracerebral hemorrhage1.00.0
  Sore throat0.30.0
  Urinary infection0.30.0
 Severe or permanent
  Cognitive deficits1.30.0
  Urinary incontinence0.70.0
  Disturbances of consciousness0.30.0
 Mild and transient
  Cognitive deficits9.19.9
  Vestibular symptoms9.10.0
  Urinary incontinence6.21.2
  Disturbances of consciousness4.90.0
  Abdominal discomfort1.00.0
  Urinary retention0.02.5
  Muscle pain0.30.0
 Severe or permanent
  Personality changes2.90.0
  Behaviour disorder*1.60.0
 Mild and transient
  Behaviour disorder*10.40.0
  Mood changes6.50.0
  Personality changes2.04.9
 Severe or permanent
  Weight change1.61.2
 Mild and transient
  Weight change5.90.0
Median incidence (range)
 Severe or permanent0.3 (0.0–2.9)0.0 (0.0–2.5)
 Mild and transient1.7 (0.0–19.2)0.0 (0.0–9.9)
  • Capsulotomy group, n = 307; limbic system surgery group, n = 81.

  • * Including sexual disinhibition, insomnia, increased appetite, hypersomia, somnolence, slurred speech and childish behaviour.

  • Including depression, anxiety and mania.