Table 1

Summary of included studies

Study (year)InterventionLesion locationDisorderNumber of participantsFindings
Rauch et al. (39) (2001)RFCingulateOCD11Positive correlation between right posterior cingulate hypermetabolism with clinical response, measured with Y-BOCS (p < 0.01, uncorrected)
Dougherty et al. (40) (2003)RFCingulateMDD13Positive correlation between left subgenual cingulate and left posterior thalamus hypermetabolism with clinical response, measured with BDI (p < 0.001, uncorrected)
Van Laere et al. (41) (2006)DBSALICOCD6 (20 matched healthy controls)Improvement in Y-BOCS score correlated with higher preoperative metabolism of the subcallosal cingulate cortex
Suetens et al. (42) (2014)DBSALICOCD16Improvement in Y-BOCS score correlated with pregenual and dorsal anterior cingulate hypermetabolism, but only with relaxation to p < 0.01 and pFDR < 0.05, and not regressing out age and sex as nuisance variables
Banks et al. (43) (2015)RFCingulateOCD15Right dACC larger in nonresponders (p = 0.017) Greater structural connectivity (DTI) between seed and thalamus, putamen, pallidum and hippocampus on right side than left in responders (laterality metric)
Spatola et al. (44) (2018)GKRSInternal capsuleOCD10No correlation between radiological results and clinical improvement; type of neuroimaging analysis not specified
Yin et al. (45) (2018)RFInternal capsuleOCD36 (29 matched healthy controls)Increased functional connectivity between dorsal caudate and dACC in nonresponders (p < 0.001 uncorrected) but did not survive multicomparison correction. Dorsal caudate–dACC functional connectivity was correlated with improvements in Y-BOCS score (p = 0.011)
  • ALIC = anterior limb of the internal capsule; BDI = Beck Depression Inventory; dACC = dorsal anterior cingulate cortex; DBS = deep brain stimulation; DTI = diffusion tensor imaging; FDR = false discovery rate; GKRS = gamma-knife radiosurgery; MDD = major depressive disorder; OCD = obsessive–compulsive disorder; RF = radiofrequency; Y-BOCS = Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale.