Table 1

Summary of study characteristics used for quantitative analysis

SampleOutcome measures
StudyTypeNo. patientsTypeNo. patientsNo. sessionsTarget regionProtocol typeBlindingSpecific anxietyGeneral anxietyDepression
De Lima et al. (86) (2019)tDCS15Sham155Left dlPFCExcitatoryDouble-blindLippHAM-ABDI
Deppermann et al. (115) (2014)iTBS20Sham2115Left dlPFCExcitatoryDouble-blindPASHAM-ANR
Diefenbach et al. (116) (2016)rTMS9Sham1010Right dlPFCInhibitoryDouble-blindPSWQHAM-AHAM-D
Dilkov et al. (87) (2017)rTMS15Sham2225Right dlPFCExcitatoryDouble-blindNRHAM-AHAM-D
Herrmann et al. (117) (2017)rTMS20Sham192vmPFCExcitatoryDouble-blindAQ anxietyNRNR
Huang et al. (118) (2018)rTMS18Sham1810Right PPCInhibitoryDouble-blindPSQIHAM-AHAM-D
Mantovani et al. (119) (2013)rTMS11Sham1020Right dlPFCInhibitoryDouble-blindPDSSHAM-AHAM-D
Movahed et al. (120) (2018)tDCS6Sham610Right dlPFCInhibitorySingle-blindPSWQHAM-AHAM-D
Nasiri et al. (121) (2020)tDCS13UP1510Right dlPFCInhibitoryDouble-blindGAD-Q-IVBAIBDI
Notzon et al. (88) (2015)iTBS20Sham201Left dlPFCExcitatorySingle-blindSPQNRNR
Prasko et al. (122) (2007)rTMS7Sham810Right dlPFCInhibitoryDouble-blindPDSSHAM-ANR
  • AQ anxiety = Acrophobia Questionnaire anxiety subscale; BAI = Beck Anxiety Inventory; BDI = Beck Depression Inventory; dlPFC = left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; GAD-Q-IV = Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-IV; HAM-A = Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale; HAM-D = Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; iTBS = intermittent theta burst stimulation; Lipp = Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults; NIBS = noninvasive brain stimulation; NR = not reported; PAS = Panic and Agoraphobia Scale; PDSS = Panic Disorder Severity Scale; PPC = posterior parietal cortex; PSQI = Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; PSWQ = Penn State Worry Questionnaire; rTMS = repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; SPQ = Spider Phobia Questionnaire; tDCS = transcranial direct current stimulation; UP = unified protocol; vmPFC = ventromedial prefrontal cortex.