Table 2

Subcortical volume and group differences, general linear models

StructureSubcortical volume, mm3*F3,363p valuePost hoc comparisons
Schizophrenia
n = 160
Bipolar disorder
n = 160
MDD
n = 160
Healthy controls
n = 160
Thalamus7140.1 ± 760.77181.8 ± 867.07231.5 ± 808.47550.9 ± 750.16.0< 0.001Schizophrenia = bipolar disorder = MDD < healthy controls
Hippocampus3881.9 ± 348.74017.4 ± 405.84054.1 ± 372.94183.9 ± 386.816.5< 0.001Schizophrenia < bipolar disorder < healthy controls; schizophrenia < MDD = healthy controls
Amygdala1724.4 ± 207.71742.0 ± 221.01755.3 ± 213.91811.0 ± 221.33.60.014
Accumbens540.2 ± 103.4560.6 ± 102.0574.2 ± 101.9593.8 ± 107.55.30.001Schizophrenia < MDD = healthy controls
Putamen5186.6 ± 555.05076.7 ± 655.85068.3 ± 563.85279.1 ± 615.63.10.027
Caudate3722.9 ± 463.43599.6 ± 471.53695.9 ± 424.13763.0 ± 477.13.30.02
Pallidum1893.5 ± 238.91802.5 ± 241.41789.6 ± 215.81872.0 ± 222.510.9< 0.001Schizophrenia > bipolar disorder = MDD = healthy controls
Lateral ventricle9387.7 ± 4844.29085.3 ± 4582.97635.5 ± 3992.47365.3 ± 3514.114.6< 0.001Schizophrenia = bipolar disorder > MDD = healthy controls
Intracranial volume1 404 012.9 ± 183 873.21 419 487.3 ± 184 604.61 420 293.2 ± 152 378.91 460 416.2 ± 183 226.0
  • MDD = major depressive disorder; SD = standard deviation.

  • * Values are mean + SD.

  • p < 0.05 (Bonferroni corrected).