Table 1

Participant demographic and clinical characteristics

CharacteristicSchizophrenia*
n = 160
Bipolar disorder*
n = 160
MDD*
n = 160
Healthy controls*
n = 160
p value
Sex, M/F80/8080/8047/11380/80< 0.001
Age, yr37.0 ± 8.837.8 ± 11.536.8 ± 11.936.6 ± 8.00.72
Education, yr13.4 ± 2.814.0 ± 2.813.7 ± 3.115.4 ± 1.8< 0.001
Age at illness onset, yr23.7 ± 6.825.3 ± 9.930.3 ± 12.0< 0.001
Illness duration, yr13.2 ± 9.112.6 ± 8.96.7 ± 6.8< 0.001
Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale
 Total score63.6 ± 17.6
 Positive subscale14.4 ± 5.0
 Negative subscale16.9 ± 5.5
 Psychopathology32.3 ± 9.2
Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Scale
 Mean score13.3 ± 8.924.0 ± 9.9
 Participants with data, n (%)97 (60.6 )139 (86.9 )
Young Mania Rating Scale
 Mean score4.3 ± 5.51.5 ± 1.9
 Participants with data, n (%)127 (79.4)160 (100)
Psychotropic use, n (%)
 Antipsychotic148 (92.5)85 (53.1)27 (16.9)
 Antidepressant51 (31.9)38 (23.8)73 (45.6)
 Antiepileptic77 (48.1)102 (63.8)22 (13.8)
 Lithium6 (3.8)28 (17.5)1 (0.6)
  • F = female; M = male; MDD = major depressive disorder; SD = standard deviation.

  • * Values are mean + SD unless otherwise specified.