Table 1

Brief descriptions of the cognitive tasks used

Cognitive testDescriptionCognitive domainOutcomeMeasure
Verbal Learning Memory TestA list of 15 nouns is read to the participant and then recalled by the participant after each learning trial (5 times, Dg1–Dg5). Then an interference list of 15 nouns is read out to and recalled by the participant. The original list is recalled immediately after the interference list (Dg6) and 20–30mins after the interference list (Dg7).Verbal learning and memoryImmediate recall∑ Dg1–Dg5
Intermediate recallDg5–Dg6
Long-term recallDg5–Dg7
Corsi block tapping testThe clinician indicated a sequence by tapping on blocks in a specific order, beginning with 2 blocks, successively adding more blocks to the sequence. In the forward condition, the participants repeat the sequence after the clinician. In the backward condition, the participants repeat the sequence, but start with the last block.Visual-spatial short-term memory and working memoryCorsi block forwardNumber of correct sequences forward
Corsi block backwardNumber of correct sequences backward
Trail Making TestThe participant connects a series of numbers (TMT A) or numbers and letters (TMT B) in the right order as fast as possible without lifting the pen.Attention and executive functioningTMT ASeconds needed for task completion
2-back taskParticipants are presented with a sequence of letters and have to indicate when the current letters match the one from N-steps earlier in the sequence. The 2-back task consists of 3 different conditions with N = 0, N = 1, and N = 2.Working memoryReaction time differenceMean reaction time for correct answers (in seconds)
AccuracyCorrectly given answers/number
  • TMT = Trail Making Test; VLMT = Verbal Learning Memory Test.