Table 3

Altered thalamocortical functional connectivity in youth with ADHD based on anatomically defined thalamic seeds*

Functional connectivityPeak coordinates, x, y, zStatistics
KE, voxelsZp value
ADHD < controls
 Mediodorsal thalamus to visual network (small-volume correction)−12, −64, 18223.870.018
 Mediodorsal thalamus to visual network (small-volume correction)8, −56, 6163.550.040
 Mediodorsal thalamus to default mode network (small-volume correction)−12, −56, 10214.030.031
 Mediodorsal thalamic seed (whole-brain analysis)−12, −56, 10504.030.008
Positive correlation with IA score in ADHD
 Mediodorsal thalamus to dorsal attention network (small-volume correction)−28, −72, 30154.110.034
Positive correlation with HI score in ADHD
 Lateral geniculate thalamus to frontoparietal network (small-volume correction)20, 60, −2194.610.021
Interaction effect (connectivity × diagnosis) on IA score
 Mediodorsal thalamus to dorsal attention network (small-volume correction)32, −64, 30174.530.027
  • ADHD = attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; FWE = family-wise error; HI = hyperactivity/impulsivity; IA = inattention; KE = cluster extent.

  • * Positive and negative x coordinates indicate right and left hemispheres, respectively. Results are displayed with a cluster-defining threshold of pFWE < 0.05.